Methodology

The Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG) is a composite index which gives a statistical measure of governance performance in 54 African countries. The 2020 IIAG dataset, which is its 13th iteration, spans a ten-year period (2010-2019).

Governance is defined by the Mo Ibrahim Foundation as the provision of the political, social, economic and environmental public goods and services that every citizen has the right to expect from their government, and that a government has the responsibility to deliver to its citizens.

The IIAG governance framework comprises four categories:

  1. Security & Rule of Law
  2. Participation, Rights & Inclusion
  3. Foundations for Economic Opportunity, and
  4. Human Development.

These categories are made up of 16 sub-categories, consisting of 79 indicators. Compiled by combining 237 variables from 40 independent African and global institutions, the 2020 IIAG is the most comprehensive collection of data on African governance.

A new IIAG dataset is released every two years. IIAG datasets are not comparable between themselves, as each iteration covers a different ten-year period, data are revised retrospectively, and revision of the theoretical framework takes place between iterations. Users of the Index should therefore always reference the most recent version of the IIAG dataset.

Citizens’ Voices

Citizens’ Voices is a new IIAG section dedicated to measure public opinion on governance issues. Citizens’ Voices mirrors the IIAG categories and provides public perception data on the closest proxies to the IIAG measures.

The Public Perception of Overall Governance score is the result of aggregating the underlying four sub-section scores: Public Perception of Security & Rule of Law, Public Perception of Participation, Rights & Inclusion, Public Perception of Economic Opportunity Foundations, and Public Perception of Human Development. Organised underneath the four sub-sections, there are 13 indicators that are formed by 35 variables from source.

All the raw data in the Citizens’ Voices section is sourced from Afrobarometer. Calculated as a separate index, Citizens’ Voices scores are not counted in the calculation of IIAG scores.

Calculation stages

  1. Variables that are consistent with the Foundation’s definition of governance and meet specific standards of quality, periodicity and country coverage are selected and missing raw data values are estimated
  2. Raw data come in different scales from source. In order to be compared and combined, data are transformed to a standardised (normalised) range of 0.0-100.0, where 100.0 is the best possible score.
  3. Once the 237 variables have been transformed to a common scale, a simple method of aggregation is applied to calculate the scores. The successive unweighted averages are carried out following the IIAG framework structure. The Overall Governance score is the average of the underlying category scores; the category scores are the average of their underlying sub-categories; and the sub-categories are the average of their constituent indicators. The majority of indicators contain sub-indicators, some of which have underlying variables (sub-sub-indicators).

A similar methodology is applied to calculate the Citizens’ Voices section scores.

Note on decimal place precision in the 2020 IIAG

All figures on IIAG outputs are displayed to one decimal place. The calculation method to arrive at these scores is as follows:

  • Country scores are calculated on full-precision raw data values (using the exact values as they are collected from source). All scores are then rounded to one decimal place.
  • Group averages are calculated on the rounded, one decimal place country scores.
  • Both change over time (trends) and ranks are calculated on the scores to one decimal place. When two countries have the same score to one decimal place, they have tied ranks.

The exception to this are the annual average trend figures. These are calculated on the rounded trends over time and displayed to two decimal places. Trend classifications are assigned based on the full precision of the annual average trends over the ten years (2010-2019) and five years (2015-2019).

If you would like to view the methodologies of commissioned datasets and data projects the Foundation contributes to (to increase the availability of governance data on Africa), they can be found here:

If you would like to view how data from Afrobarometer was coded for inclusion in the 2020 IIAG, please see the following document:

IIAG data sources

The 2020 IIAG consists of 79 indicators that are formed by 237 variables, from 40 independent, external data sources.

Security & Rule of Law

21 indicators in four sub-categories:

Data sources

Security & Safety

Indicators
Absence of Armed Conflict
Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project Armed Conflict Location & Event Dataset
Uppsala University, Department of Peace and Conflict Research Uppsala Conflict Data Programme
Absence of Violence against Civilians
Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project Armed Conflict Location & Event Dataset
The Political Terror Scale The Political Terror Scale
Absence of Forced Migration
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre GIDD: Global Internal Displacement Database
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNHCR’s Refugee Population Statistics Database
Absence of Human Trafficking & Forced Labour
United States Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
Absence of Criminality
World Health Organization Global Health Observatory

Rule of Law & Justice

Indicators
Executive Compliance with the Rule of Law
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
World Justice Project Rule of Law Index
Impartiality of the Judicial System
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
Judicial Processes
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
World Justice Project Rule of Law Index
Equality before the Law
Freedom House Freedom in the World
World Justice Project Rule of Law Index
Law Enforcement
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
World Economic Forum Executive Opinion Survey
World Justice Project Rule of Law Index
Property Rights
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
World Justice Project Rule of Law Index

Accountability & Transparency

Indicators
Institutional Checks & Balances
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
World Justice Project Rule of Law Index
Civic Checks & Balances
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
World Justice Project Rule of Law Index
Absence of Undue Influence on Government
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
Freedom House Freedom in the World
Disclosure of Financial & Judicial Information
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
International Budget Partnership Open Budget Survey
World Justice Project Rule of Law Index
Accessibility of Information
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
World Justice Project Rule of Law Index

Anti-Corruption

Indicators
Anti-Corruption Mechanisms
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Absence of Corruption in State Institutions
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
World Justice Project Rule of Law Index
Absence of Corruption in the Public Sector
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
World Economic Forum Executive Opinion Survey
World Justice Project Rule of Law Index
Public Procurement Procedures
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Absence of Corruption in the Private Sector
World Bank Worldwide Governance Indicators
World Economic Forum Executive Opinion Survey

Participation, Rights & Inclusion

19 indicators in four sub-categories:

Data sources

Participation

Indicators
Freedom of Association & Assembly
Freedom House Freedom in the World
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Political Pluralism
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
Civil Society Space
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
Democratic Elections
Ghana Center for Democratic Development African Electoral Index: 2000-2019
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project

Rights

Indicators
Personal Liberties
Freedom House Freedom in the World
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
World Justice Project Rule of Law Index
Freedom of Expression & Belief
Freedom House Freedom in the World
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
World Justice Project Rule of Law Index
Media Freedom
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Reporters sans frontiers World Press Freedom Index
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
Digital Rights
Digital Society Project & Varieties of Democracy Institute Digital Society Survey
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Protection against Discrimination
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators

Inclusion & Equality

Indicators
Equal Political Power
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
Equal Political Representation
Freedom House Freedom in the World
Inter-Parliamentary Union Parline: Global data on national parliaments
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
Equal Civil Liberties
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
Equal Socioeconomic Opportunity
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
Equal Access to Public Services
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project

Gender

Indicators
Political Power & Representation of Women
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Inter-Parliamentary Union Parline: Global data on national parliaments
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
World Bank Gender Statistics
Equal Civil Liberties for Women
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
Socioeconomic Opportunity for Women
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
Equal Access to Public Services for Women
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
Laws on Violence against Women
OECD Development Centre Social Institutions and Gender Index

Foundations for Economic Opportunity

18 indicators in four sub-categories:

Data sources

Public Administration

Indicators
Civil Registration
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Capacity of the Statistical System
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Open Data Watch Open Data Inventory
World Bank Statistical Capacity Indicators
Tax & Revenue Mobilisation
African Development Bank AfDB Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA)
International Centre for Tax and Development & United Nations University - World Institute for Development Economics Research .Government Revenue Dataset
World Bank WB Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA)
Budgetary & Financial Management
African Development Bank AfDB Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA)
World Bank WB Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA)
Professional Administration
African Development Bank AfDB Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA)
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
World Bank WB Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA)

Business Environment

Indicators
Regional Integration
African Development Bank AfDB Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA)
Trade Environment
World Bank Doing Business
World Bank Logistics Performance Index
Business & Competition Regulations
African Development Bank AfDB Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA)
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
World Bank WB Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA)
World Economic Forum Executive Opinion Survey
Access to Financial Services
World Bank Global Findex
Labour Relations
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
World Economic Forum Executive Opinion Survey

Infrastructure

Indicators
Transport Network
World Economic Forum Executive Opinion Survey
Universal Postal Union Integrated Index for Postal Development (2IPD)
Access to Energy
World Bank World Development Indicators
Mobile Communications
International Telecommunication Union World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Database
Digital Access
International Telecommunication Union World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Database
World Bank World Development Indicators

Rural Sector

Indicators
Rural Land & Water Access
International Fund for Agricultural Development Performance-based Allocation System
Rural Market Access
International Fund for Agricultural Development Performance-based Allocation System
Rural Sector Support
International Fund for Agricultural Development Performance-based Allocation System
Rural Businesses & Organisations
International Fund for Agricultural Development Performance-based Allocation System

Human Development

21 indicators in four sub-categories:

Data sources

Health

Indicators
Access to Healthcare
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
World Health Organization Global Health Observatory
Access to Water & Sanitation
World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation Database
Control of Communicable Diseases
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS AIDSinfo Database
World Health Organization Global Health Observatory
Control of Non-Communicable Diseases
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Global Burden of Disease
Control of Child & Maternal Mortality
UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation Child Mortality Estimates
UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-agency Group Trends in Maternal Mortality: 2000-2017
Compliance with International Health Regulations
World Health Organization Global Health Observatory

Education

Indicators
Equality in Education
World Bank EdStats
Varieties of Democracy Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
Education Enrolment
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation UNESCO Institute for Statistics
Education Completion
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Reports
World Bank EdStats
Human Resources in Education
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation UNESCO Institute for Statistics
Education Quality
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
World Economic Forum Executive Opinion Survey

Social Protection

Indicators
Social Safety Nets
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Poverty Reduction Policies
African Development Bank AfDB Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA)
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
World Bank WB Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA)
Socioeconomic Inequality Mitigation
African Development Bank AfDB Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA)
WID.world World Inequality Database
World Bank WB Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA)
Access to Housing
Centre for Affordable Housing Finance in Africa Housing Finance in Africa Yearbook
United Nations Human Settlements Programme Urban Indicators Database
Absence of Undernourishment
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAOSTAT

Sustainable Environment

Indicators
Promotion of Environmental Sustainability
African Development Bank AfDB Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA)
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
World Bank WB Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA)
Enforcement of Environmental Policies
World Economic Forum Executive Opinion Survey
World Justice Project Rule of Law Index
Air Quality
Health Effects Institute & Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation State of Global Air
Sustainable Management of Land & Forests
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAOSTAT
World Bank World Development Indicators
World Resources Institute Global Forest Watch
Land & Water Biodiversity
Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy/Center for International Earth Science Information Network Earth Institute, Columbia University Environmental Performance Index
World Bank World Development Indicators

Citizens’ Voices data sources

The Citizens’ Voices section consists of 13 indicators that are formed by 35 variables. All of them come from one same data source:

Afrobarometer Afrobarometer Surveys