The Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG) is an annually published index that provides a statistical measure of governance performance in every African country.

Governance is defined by the Mo Ibrahim Foundation as the provision of the political, social and economic public goods and services that every citizen has the right to expect from his or her state, and that a state has the responsibility to deliver to its citizens. This definition is focused on outputs and outcomes of policy. The IIAG governance framework comprises four categories:

  1. Safety & Rule of Law
  2. Participation & Human Rights
  3. Sustainable Economic Opportunity, and
  4. Human Development.

These categories are made up of 14 sub-categories, consisting of 95 indicators. The 2016 IIAG is calculated using data from 34 independent, external data sources.

The IIAG is refined on an annual basis. Refinements may be methodological, or based on the inclusion or exclusion of indicators. When new historical data are made available, or the structure of the IIAG is strengthened, the entire data set is updated back to 2000. Users of the Index should therefore always reference the most recent version of the IIAG data set.

Calculation steps

  1. Indicators that are consistent with the Foundation’s definition of governance and meet specific standards of quality, periodicity and country coverage are selected and missing raw data values are estimated.
  2. Raw data come in different scales from source. In order to be compared and combined, data are transformed to a standardised range of 0-100, where 100 is the best possible score.
  3. Once the 95 indicators have been transformed to a common scale, a simple method of aggregation is applied to calculate the scores. The overall score is the average of the underlying category scores; the category scores the average of their underlying sub-categories, and the sub-categories the average of their constituent indicators.

Note on decimal place precision in the 2016 IIAG

All figures on IIAG outputs are displayed to one decimal place. The calculation method to arrive at these scores is as follows:

  • Country scores are calculated on full-precision raw data values (using the exact values as they are collected from source). All scores are then rounded to one decimal place.
  • Group averages are calculated on the rounded, one decimal place country scores.
  • Both change over time and ranks are calculated on the scores to one decimal place.

For further information, please see the full IIAG methodology.

For additional IIAG resources, visit the downloads page.

If you would like to view the methodologies of commissioned data sets, they can be found here:

If you would like to view how data from Afrobarometer was coded for inclusion in the 2016 IIAG, please see the following document:

IIAG data sources

The 2016 IIAG consists of 95 indicators that are formed by 166 variables, from 34 independent, external data sources.

Safety and Rule of Law

25 indicators in four sub-categories:

Data sources

Participation and Human Rights

17 indicators in three sub-categories:

Data sources

Sustainable Economic Opportunity

27 indicators in four sub-categories:

Data sources

Human Development

26 indicators in three sub-categories:

Data sources