Methodology

The Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG) is a biannually published index that provides a statistical measure of governance performance in 54 African countries. The 2018 IIAG dataset, which is its 12th iteration, spans a ten-year period (2008-2017).

Governance is defined by the Mo Ibrahim Foundation as the provision of the political, social and economic public goods and services that every citizen has the right to expect from his or her state, and that a state has the responsibility to deliver to its citizens. This definition is focused on outputs and outcomes of policy.

The IIAG governance framework comprises four categories:

  1. Safety & Rule of Law
  2. Participation & Human Rights
  3. Sustainable Economic Opportunity, and
  4. Human Development.

These categories are made up of 14 sub-categories, consisting of 102 indicators. The 2018 IIAG is calculated using data from 35 independent African and global data sources.

The IIAG is refined on annual basis. Refinements may be methodological, or based on the inclusion or exclusion of indicators.  When new historical data are made available, or the structure of the IIAG is strengthened, the entire dataset is updated back to the first year of the time series. Users of the Index should therefore always reference the most recent version of the IIAG dataset.

Calculation stages

  1. Indicators that are consistent with the Foundation’s definition of governance and meet specific standards of quality, periodicity and country coverage are selected and missing raw data values are estimated.
  2. Raw data come in different scales from source. In order to be compared and combined, data are transformed to a standardised range of 0.0-100.0, where 100.0 is the best possible score.
  3. Once the 100 indicators have been transformed to a common scale, a simple method of aggregation is applied to calculate the scores. The Overall Governance score is the average of the underlying category scores; the category scores the average of their underlying sub-categories, and the sub-categories the average of their constituent indicators.

Note on decimal place precision in the 2018 IIAG

All figures on IIAG outputs are displayed to one decimal place. The calculation method to arrive at these scores is as follows:

  • Country scores are calculated on full-precision raw data values (using the exact values as they are collected from source). All scores are then rounded to one decimal place.
  • Group averages are calculated on the rounded, one decimal place country scores.
  • Both trends over time and ranks are calculated on the scores to one decimal place.

The exception to this are the annual average trend figures. These are calculated on the rounded trends over time, and displayed to two decimal places. Trend classifications are assigned based on the full precision of the annual average trend.

An explanation of how we approach trend classifications can be found here.

A detailed, technical methodology is available here. Visit the downloads page for more technical documents.

If you would like to view the methodologies of commissioned datasets and data projects the Foundation contributes to (to increase the availability of governance data on Africa), they can be found here:

If you would like to view how data from Afrobarometer was coded for inclusion in the 2018 IIAG, please see the following document:

IIAG data sources

The 2018 IIAG consists of 102 indicators that are formed by 191 variables, from 35 independent, external data sources.

Safety and Rule of Law

27 indicators in four sub-categories:

Data sources

Rule of Law

Indicators
Independence of the Judiciary
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
V-Dem Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report
Independence & Transparency of the Judicial Process
Economist Intelligence Unit Economist Intelligence Unit Dataset
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Access to Justice
V-Dem Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
Property Rights
African Development Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report
World Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
Mechanisms for Orderly Transfers of Power
Economist Intelligence Unit Economist Intelligence Unit Dataset
Absence of Multilateral Sanctions
Ghana Center for Democratic Development Sanctions in Africa 2000-2017

Transparency & Accountability

Indicators
Access to Public & Legislative Information
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Access to Records of State-owned Companies
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Accountability of Government & Public Employees
African Development Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
Economist Intelligence Unit Economist Intelligence Unit Dataset
V-Dem Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
World Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
Sanctions for Abuse of Office
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
Absence of Corruption in Government Branches
V-Dem Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
Absence of Corruption in the Public Sector
Economist Intelligence Unit Economist Intelligence Unit Dataset
V-Dem Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report
Absence of Corruption in the Private Sector
World Bank Worldwide Governance Indicators
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report
Absence of Favouritism
Economist Intelligence Unit Economist Intelligence Unit Dataset
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report
Anti-corruption Mechanisms
Afrobarometer Afrobarometer Surveys
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators

Personal Safety

Indicators
Perception of Personal Safety
Afrobarometer Afrobarometer Surveys
Economist Intelligence Unit Economist Intelligence Unit Dataset
Reliability of Police Services
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report
Absence of Social Unrest
Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project Armed Conflict Location and Event Dataset
Economist Intelligence Unit Economist Intelligence Unit Dataset
Absence of Crime
Afrobarometer Afrobarometer Surveys
Economist Intelligence Unit Economist Intelligence Unit Dataset
Absence of Government Violence against Civilians
Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project Armed Conflict Location and Event Dataset
Political Terror Scale Political Terror Scale
Absence of Human Trafficking
United States Department of State – Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons Trafficking in Persons Report

National Security

Indicators
Absence of Government Involvement in Armed Conflict
Uppsala University, Department of Peace and Conflict Research – Uppsala Conflict Data Programme UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict Dataset version 18.1
Absence of Domestic Armed Conflict or Risk of Conflict
Economist Intelligence Unit Economist Intelligence Unit Dataset
Absence of Violence against Civilians by Non-state Actors
Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project Armed Conflict Location and Event Dataset
Absence of Cross-border Tensions
Economist Intelligence Unit Economist Intelligence Unit Dataset
Absence of Internally Displaced Persons
Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre Global Internal Displacement Database
Absence of Refugees
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNHCR Population Statistics Database

Participation and Human Rights

19 indicators in three sub-categories:

Data sources

Participation

Indicators
Political Participation

Economist Intelligence UnitDemocracy Index

Freedom House Freedom in the World
V-Dem Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
Civil Society Participation
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
V-Dem Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
Democratic Elections
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
Ghana Center for Democratic Development African Electoral Index: 2000-2017
V-Dem Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
Capacity of Election Monitoring Agencies
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
V-Dem Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
Effective Power to Govern
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index

Rights

Indicators
Freedom of Expression
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Reporters sans frontières World Press Freedom Index
V-Dem Institute Varieties of Democracy Project
Freedom of Association & Assembly
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Civil Rights & Liberties
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
Freedom House Freedom in the World
Ratification & Reporting of International Human Rights Conventions
United Nations Office of Legal Affairs/Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights Treaty Body Database
Un-likelihood of Human Rights Abuses by the Government
Economist Intelligence Unit Economist Intelligence Unit Dataset
Protection against Ethnic & Religious Discrimination
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators

Gender

Indicators
Promotion of Gender Equality
African Development Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
World Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
Women’s Political Representation
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Inter-Parliamentary Union Women’s Political Representation
World Bank Gender Statistics
Gender Parity in Primary & Lower Secondary School
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCO Institute for Statistics
Women’s Labour Force Participation
World Bank World Development Indicators
Workplace Gender Equality
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Representation of Women in the Judiciary
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Laws on Violence against Women
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Social Institutions and Gender Index under Gender, Institutions and Development Database
Women’s Political Empowerment
V-Dem Institute Varieties of Democracy Project

Sustainable Economic Opportunity

30 indicators in four sub-categories:

Data sources

Public Management

Indicators
Governmental Statistical Capacity
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
World Bank Statistical Capacity Indicators
Civil Registration
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Effectiveness of the Public Service
African Development Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
World Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
Online Public Services
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs E-Government Development Index
Diversification of Exports
African Development Bank/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/United Nations Development Programme African Economic Outlook
Budgetary & Financial Management
African Development Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
World Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
Budget Balance
African Development Bank, African Union Commission, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa African Statistical Yearbook
Fiscal Policy
African Development Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
World Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
Tax & Revenue Mobilisation
African Development Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
International Centre for Tax and Development, United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research Government Revenue Dataset
World Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment

Business Environment

Indicators
Business Regulatory Environment
African Development Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
World Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
Absence of Excessive Bureaucracy & Red Tape
Economist Intelligence Unit Economist Intelligence Unit Dataset
Absence of Restrictions on Foreign Investment
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report
Efficiency of Customs Procedures
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report
Robustness of Banks
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report
Satisfaction with Employment Creation
Afrobarometer Afrobarometer Surveys
Government Development of Regional Integration
African Development Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment

Infrastructure

Indicators
Enabling Environment for Infrastructure Development
African Development Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
Transport Infrastructure
Afrobarometer Afrobarometer Surveys
Economist Intelligence Unit Economist Intelligence Unit Dataset
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report
Reliability of Electricity Supply
Afrobarometer Afrobarometer Surveys
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report
Digital & IT Infrastructure
Economist Intelligence Unit Economist Intelligence Unit Dataset
International Telecommunication Union ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Database
Access to Drinking Water
World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation Database
Satisfaction with Provision of Water & Sanitation Services
Afrobarometer Afrobarometer Surveys

Rural Sector

Indicators
Access to Rural Land & Water for Agriculture
International Fund for Agricultural Development Performance-based Allocation System
Rural Business Climate
International Fund for Agricultural Development Performance-based Allocation System
Government Investment in Rural Development
International Fund for Agricultural Development Performance-based Allocation System
Access to Agricultural Research & Extension Services
International Fund for Agricultural Development Performance-based Allocation System
Budgetary Balance of Agricultural Policy
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report
Participation of Rural Organisations
International Fund for Agricultural Development Performance-based Allocation System
Promotion of Gender Parity in Rural Organisations
International Fund for Agricultural Development Performance-based Allocation System
Rural Accountability & Transparency
International Fund for Agricultural Development Performance-based Allocation System

Human Development

26 indicators in three sub-categories:

Data sources

Welfare

Indicators
Welfare Policies & Services
African Development Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
World Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
Promotion of Socio-economic Integration of Youth
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Social Safety Nets
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Social Protection & Labour Policies
African Development Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
World Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
Social Inclusion
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
Absence of Lived Poverty
Afrobarometer Afrobarometer Surveys
Poverty Reduction Efforts
Afrobarometer Afrobarometer Surveys
African Development Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
World Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
Satisfaction with Narrowing Income Gaps
Afrobarometer Afrobarometer Surveys
Environmental Policies
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
Promotion of Environmental Sustainability
African Development Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
World Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment

Education

Indicators
Satisfaction with Education Provision
Afrobarometer Afrobarometer Surveys
Education Quality
Bertelsmann Stiftung Bertelsmann Transformation Index
Alignment of Education with Market Needs
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report
Human Resources in Primary Schools
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCO Institute for Statistics
Primary School Completion
World Bank World Development Indicators
Secondary Education Enrolment
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCO Institute for Statistics
Tertiary Education Enrolment
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCO Institute for Statistics

Health

Indicators
Satisfaction with Basic Health Services
Afrobarometer Afrobarometer Surveys
Public Health Campaigns
Global Integrity Africa Integrity Indicators
Absence of Child Mortality
Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation Child Mortality Estimates Info
Absence of Maternal Mortality
Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-agency Group Trends in maternal mortality: 1990 to 2015
Access to Sanitation
World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation Database
Absence of Undernourishment
World Bank World Development Indicators
Absence of Communicable Diseases
World Health Organization Global Health Observatory Database
Immunisation
World Bank World Development Indicators
World Health Organization Global Health Observatory Database
Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Provision
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS AIDSinfo